- September 11, 2001
The terrorist acts occur in the United States. Two airliners
are flown into the World Trade Centre, one into the Pentagon,
and one airliner crashes in Pennsylvania.
- September 12 - October 06,
The United States declares war on terrorism and begins to
build a coalition. The United States identifies Osama bin Laden
as the primary suspect of the terrorist bombings, and begins its
military build-up in the Middle East.
- September 24, 2001
Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chretien meets with U.S.
President George W. Bush in Washington. At this time, the United
States makes no formal requests for military contributions.
- October 05, 2001
President George W. Bush telephones Prime Minister Jean
Chretien and requests Canadian military support for operations
- October 07, 2001
The United States launches military action against the
Taliban in Afghanistan.
- October 07, 2001
Prime Minister Jean Chretien announces that Canada will
provide military contributions to operations in the Middle East
and begins deployment of Canadian troops.
Canada’s Military Contribution
- HMCS Vancouver, Halifax,
Charlottetown, and one frigate yet to be named
These frigates are primarily designed for anti-submarine
warfare, but are also effective in air-defence and anti-ship
roles. They will be used to protect American carrier groups in
the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea.
- HMCS Iroquois
This destroyer is designed for long-range air defence and as
a command vessel. It will be used to protect American carrier
groups in the Persian Gulf.
- HMCS Preserver
This supply ship carries 15, 000 tonnes of fuel and will be
used to refuel coalition ships at sea.
- Aurora Patrol Aircraft
These aircraft are designed for long-range surface and
sub-surface surveillance and detection. Four Auroras will be
used to protect naval groups in the Persian Gulf.
- Hercules and Airbus Transport
These cargo aircraft are designed for long-range transport
of troops and equipment. Three Hercules and one Airbus will be
used to transport humanitarian aid, troops and equipment in
- Joint Task Force-2
This special forces unit is primarily trained for
anti-terrorist and hostage-rescue roles. It will be used for
covert missions behind enemy lines in Afghanistan.
More About the Canadian Navy
Out Pictures and Descriptions of Aircraft in the Canadian Air Force
More About Joint Task Force-2
Also known as the Islamic State of
Afghanistan, Afghanistan is located in southern Asia. It is north
and west of Pakistan, and east of Iran. Afghanistan is a landlocked
nation with a population of approximately 28 million.
Facts about Afghanistan
Osama bin Laden
He is the alleged mastermind
behind the terrorist bombings on September 11, 2001. Osama bin Laden
has also been linked to the 1993 World Trade Centre bombing, attacks
on American embassies in Africa, and the bombing of an American
warship in the Persian Gulf. He is suspected to be hiding in
About Osama bin Laden
The Taliban are an Islamic
fundamentalist regime that came to power in Afghanistan following
the Soviet withdrawal in the 1980’s. The United States has
targeted the Taliban because of its sponsorship of global terrorism
and the regime’s refusal to hand over Osama bin Laden. In
response, the Taliban have declared an Islamic Holy War or Jihad
against the United States.
more about the Taliban
The Northern Alliance
The Northern Alliance is a rebel
group in Afghanistan that has been fighting the Taliban. The
Alliance has offered its partnership to the United States and the
international coalition against terrorism.
on the Northern Alliance
The Anti-Terrorist Coalition
The Coalition is spearheaded by the
United States, with NATO, Great Britain and other nations playing
important roles. The long-term objective of the Coalition is the end
of global terrorism and state sponsorship of terrorism. The
immediate objective of the Coalition is the capture of Osama bin
Laden and military action against the Taliban in Afghanistan.
U.S. President George W. Bush’s Address to the Nation Concerning
the Anti-Terrorist Coalition
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NATO is a multinational defence
organization that includes Canada, the United States, and many
countries in Europe. NATO was formed after World War II to defend
Europe from the Soviet Union. The United States has invoked Article
5 of the Washington Treaty, which obliges all members of NATO to
support the United States in its war on terrorism.
Read More About NATO and the War
Against Terrorism at its Official Website
North American Aerospace Defence
NORAD is a binational defence
organization that includes Canada and the United States. NORAD was
formed to monitor and defend North American airspace against attacks
from aircraft, missiles and space vehicles. Canada has recently
committed additional CF-18 fighter jets to NORAD.
What Is This War Against Terrorism?
The war on terrorism will not be
like other past wars. To begin, U.S. President George W. Bush has
given the war a very broad objective, specifically, the eradication
of global terrorism. This broad objective has two primary targets:
(1) global terrorists and their organizations and (2) states that
sponsor and provide safe haven to global terrorists. Examples of
global terrorist organizations include Islamic extremist groups such
as al-Qaeda and the International Islamic Jihad movement, and
Palestinian groups such as Hamas. Examples of nations that sponsor
terrorism are Sudan, Syria, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, and
Not only does the war on terrorism
have a broad objective, it will also have a very fluid nature. In
example, the “enemies” of this war will change over time.
Currently, the anti-terrorist coalition is focused upon Osama bin
Laden and the Taliban. However, new “bad guys” will appear as
the United States takes on different terrorist groups and nations
linked to terrorism. Furthermore, the anti-terrorist coalition
itself will change as the war progresses. The United States and
Britain will be joined by different nations at different times
depending upon the particular enemies and needs of the war. Finally,
the strategies and instruments that the anti-terrorist coalition
will use will change from circumstance to circumstance. Currently,
the coalition is using military force against the Taliban. In other
instances, the coalition may use sanctions, the freezing of assets,
or criminal prosecution to achieve its goals.
Read What the Central
Intelligence Agency Says About the War on Terrorism
What the United States Department of Defense Says About the War on
Read What the Canadian Department
of National Defence Says About the War on Terrorism
Can Canada Contribute More to the
War Against Terrorism?
It is unlikely the Canada’s
military contribution to the war on terrorism will grow much larger
than Operation Apollo. Military spending in Canada has been cut over
the last ten years. This has resulted in a shortage of trained
personnel in the Army, Navy and Air Force. To contribute additional
troops to the war on terrorism, Canada would have to take necessary
personnel away from other important duties (i.e. peacekeeping).
Furthermore, the Canadian Armed Forces has not been able to buy new
equipment over the last decade. As such, Canada does not have much
more to offer to the United States and the anti-terrorist coalition.
However, Canada will be able to
provide additional “behind the scenes” support for the war
against terrorism. Canada is well respected in the international
community, and is able to influence many international organizations
such as NATO, the G-8, the Commonwealth and La Francophonie. Canada
will also continue to work closely with the United States and other
nations in intelligence gathering and analysis.
More About Canada’s Role in the War Against Terrorism
Get the Latest From the Canadian
Department of National Defence
Get the Latest From the
Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade
Read Reports on the State of
the Canadian Military by the Conference of Defence Associations
Is This True? Answer
true or false to the following questions.
Answers found here
is a former republic of the Soviet Union
Taliban were supported by Pakistan in the Afghanistan civil war
- Canada ranks second to last
in NATO expenditures as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product
the war on terrorism, military force will be one of the many
Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) performed
anti-terrorist duties before Joint Task Force-2
What’s the Word? Define
the following words and use them in a sentence.
Answers found here
Which of the following support international military action in
Afghanistan and which do not?
||1. Art Eggleton
||6. Great Britain
||3. The Taliban
||8. George W. Bush
||4. The Northern
||9. Osama bin Laden
||10. The Alliance
Party of Canada
Answers found here
Spotlight #1 Canada Joins the Battle
Is This True?
Afghanistan was never officially declared a
republic of the Soviet Union. However, the Soviet Union did
invade Afghanistan in the 1970 and 80's and controlled a
"puppet" Afghan government.
The Taliban have had a close relationship with
Pakistan ever since Pakistan recruited the Taliban to protect
their trade envoys in 1994.
In 1999, Canada spent 1.2 percent of its GDP on
NATO defence expenditures. Only Luxembourg spent less at 0.9
percent of GDP.
Military action will be only one of many
strategies used in the war on terrorism. Other strategies
include diplomatic pressure, asset freezing, trade embargos, and
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)
performed ant-terrorist duties before Joint Task Force -2.
What's the Word?
Involving more than two nations
Involving just two nations
A Muslim holy war or religious struggle
The threat or use of violence for ideological or
Firm devotion to fundamental principles and often
accompanied by intolerance of other views
An alliance, often temporary, of persons, groups
1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10
Do not Support
2, 3, 9