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  1. My Criticisms and Reforming Suggestions for the Canadian Political Party System By Exegesisme Criticism 1, Technical definition for machines of election, can not provide great leadership to meet the great demand of great creativities of Canadian nation and Canadian people. On information: In Canada, for example, the Canada Elections Act defines a political party as: “an organization one of whose fundamental purpose is to participate in public affairs by endorsing one or more of its members as candidates and supporting their election.”​(1) Suggestion 1: defining political party by conscience, for example, conservative conscience, liberal conscience, NDP conscience, green conscience, and so on. Republic representative conscience providing great leadership re-organizes each individual conscience through different branches and different levels. Criticism 2, Electing interests of a party overtakes the interests of the nation and the people. On information: Under Canada’s parliamentary system, the political party with the most MPs in the House usually forms government. Once in power, the governing party (or its leader) is entitled to fill a broad range of positions in the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Examples include the cabinet ministers, executive staff (to fill key roles in the Prime Minister’s Office), the Governor General of Canada, members of the Senate, and justices of the Supreme Court of Canada.​(1) Suggestion 2: each MPs in the House of Commons must speak and must vote on her or his conscience. Criticism 3, Very bad example of the political culture in the House of Commons. On information: In this context, political parties operate as agents of political culture, teaching the “rules of the game” to citizens. Other key agents of political culture include the family, the formal education system, religious institutions, the mass media, and government itself.(1)​ Most MPs are members of a political party and, as such, are required to follow the wishes of their party when deliberating and acting in the House. In Canada party discipline is much more acute than in other western democracies. In the United States and the United Kingdom, for example, representatives enjoy considerably more freedom from their parties. Canadian MPs, however, are expected to follow the direction set by their parties' leadership and caucus — even when that direction is in opposition to their views or the demands of their constituents.​(2) Suggestion 3: conscience as the only fundamental standard in the House of Commons. Criticism 4, The machines of election in Canada faraway from the people. On information: Estimates suggests only between 1 percent and 2 percent belong to parties on an ongoing basis, placing Canadian party membership near the bottom of a list vis-à-vis many other western democracies (Carty & Cross, 2010).​(1) In Canada, the parliamentary wings of parties stay continually active. The extra-parliamentary wing, by contrast, is often dormant, becoming active only during important events in the party’s life, such as election campaigns, leader selection or review, and large-scale reforms of the party’s policies. This is in contrast to other countries, such as Britain, where the extra-parliamentary wings of parties stay continually active, mobilizing electoral support and engaging the general public.​(1) Suggestion 4: conscience as core links the nation, the parties, and the people. Criticism 5, The mixture or ill-separation of legislative branch and executive branch weakens general representative function. On information: The parliamentary wing consists of the party’s elected members in Parliament, which usually includes the leader and members of the party caucus. This wing is responsible for party activities in the legislative and executive branches of government, such as voting on legislation, participating in parliamentary committees, and selecting government officials.​(1) Suggestion 5: the three branches of power should be well-separated for reconstituting the leadership of the whole nation to a higher level. Criticism 6, A set of a few through an alien system, which representative function of the people is very weak, rules all. On information: In theory, for a political party, the convention is the ultimate authority. In practice, however, the party’s leadership and elite tend to dominate party life (see below for more on party leadership).(1) Party organization also includes the local constituency level. The major parties usually have organizations in individual electoral districts, which oversee the activities of the party at the local level. These organizations are led by constituency executives who recruit volunteers and raise funds for election campaigning. This local level also plays a role in the election of convention delegates and the nomination and selection of candidates.(1) It is important to note that the concept of responsible government has a particular meaning in Canadian parliamentary democracy. At first glance, one might think it means it is about government being responsible or accountable to the people over whom it governs. In Canada's parliamentary system, however, it means ― more precisely ― that government is responsible to the elected representatives of the people.​(2) Suggestion 6: the set of the few should be deeply and accountably connected with the whole. Criticism 7, "The elected representatives of the people" do not really represents the people, but represents their parties as they vote in the House of Commons. On information: (Criticism 2 information(2)) Suggestion 7: each MP should reestablish her or his conscience with the people in the relevant constituency through the campaign of an election and routine connection. Criticism 8, The opposing influence effects extremely, no important influence on the government or overthrowing the government, and lacks establishing opposing influence. On information: If the party is not in power, the leader directs the caucus in opposing the government and its policies (where there is discord), raising criticisms of government actions and providing alternate policies. The leader usually oversees a shadow cabinet, made up of senior caucus members who focus on specific areas of public policy in their criticisms of the government.(1) Suggestion 8: the executive branch should have its own constitutional resources for its stability, and then the legislative branch can establish a situation for free speech and free vote on the republic conscience of each MP. Criticism 9, Policymaking process lacks general, strong and effective checks and balances. On information: At a very minimum, parties must develop platforms during elections which set out their course of action if the party is successfully elected to govern. In formulating policy, however, parties often face a difficult dilemma (Dyck, 2008). On the on hand, parties aim to provide party members with an opportunity to put forward and debate policy ideas. On the other, parties need to protect against adopting policy commitments that are unrealistic or may be detrimental to electoral success.(1) Suggestion 9: Canadian people need general political education for understanding the core position of their political rights in their life-time benefits, which strengthens the grassroots of policymaking and influence. Criticism 10, regionalism is a symptom of Ill-representative function of ill-party system and ill-federal politics. On information: Many of these new parties are or have been based around a particular region and its interests. The Bloc Québécois, for example, runs candidates only in the province of Quebec, with Quebec nationalism serving as its key policy plank. The Reform Party (and its later incarnation, the Canadian Alliance) was a western-based party that focused on themes including western alienation and seeking a voice for western interests in national politics.​(1) Instead of parties aggregating and accommodating interests on a national scale, Canada is left with a set of parties which are largely regionally based, focused predominantly on a given region’s interests.While this may be a valid charge, it is important to note that regional parties are an do articulate interests that may otherwise be marginalized in the political system. In this vein, the creation of the Reform Party/Canadian Alliance and Bloc Québécois parties was, in part, the result of perceived deficiencies in the existing political system at the time, where the interests of central Canada (and, in particular, Ontario) were thought to dominate.​(1) Suggestion 10: synthetic reformation aims to form Republic Representative Conscience for Republic Representative Function. Reference (1) http://mapleleafweb.com/features/political-parties-and-party-system-canada-history-operation-and-issues (2) http://mapleleafweb.com/features/house-commons-introduction-canadas-premier-legislative-body
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